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小臂工作无力故障问题及检查方法

日期:2021-07-22   来源:http://www.dybocheng.com
从加长臂挖掘机的液压系统工作原理图可以知道:挖掘机的大臂工作正常,说明工作泵、总安 全阀都是正常的,同时也表明泵进油端的管路和滤油器以及油箱的油量、油质没问题。而挖掘机的小臂工作缓慢无力,我们需要检查的是小臂工作滑阀、安 全阀、及其密封件。
It can be known from the working principle diagram of the hydraulic system of the lengthening boom excavator that the boom of the excavator works normally, indicating that the working pump and the general safety valve are normal, and that the oil quantity and quality of the pipeline and oil filter at the oil inlet end of the pump and the oil tank are all right. But the small arm of excavator works slowly and powerlessly, what we need to check is the small arm working slide valve, safety valve and its seal.
1:测量相应工作油路的压力,用压力表测得,当处于“回转”“大臂提升”两种工作状态时,其工作油路的压力仅为10MPa,先导控制系统油压仅为0.5MPa,(正常值为2.8MPa)。而处于其它工作状态的工作油压、先导控制系统油压符合正常值,后对液压的工作原理图进行仔细分析,发现回转控制优先的先导油路与大臂控制优先的先导油路与左行走控制阀、直线行走阀的油路可相通。
1: The pressure of the corresponding working oil circuit is measured by the pressure gauge. When it is in the two working states of "slewing" and "boom lifting", the pressure of the working oil circuit is only 10MPa, and the oil pressure of the pilot control system is only 0.5MPa (the normal value is 2.8MPa). After careful analysis of the hydraulic working principle diagram, it is found that the pilot oil circuit with slewing control priority and boom control priority can be connected with the oil circuit of left travel control valve and linear travel valve.
因此初步判断可能由于“左行走控制阀”中有高压油作用于“直线行梭走阀”,至使“直线行走梭阀”的阀蕊不在中位,“回转”和“大臂提升、下降”的先导控制油路通过“梭阀”、“直线行走阀”后被旁通泄压,后轻微操作“左行走”操作手柄时,“回转”和“大臂提升”两者动作有所加快,因此判断“左行走控制阀”的端部“弹簧和油封”损坏,经拆卸“左行走控制阀”发现油封、弹簧已明显损坏。
Therefore, it is preliminarily judged that there may be high pressure oil in the "left travel control valve" acting on the "linear travel shuttle valve" until the valve core of the "linear travel shuttle valve" is not in the middle position, and the pilot control oil circuit of "slewing" and "boom lifting and lowering" is bypassed and depressurized after passing through the "shuttle valve" and "linear travel valve", and then the "left travel" operation handle is slightly operated, Therefore, it was judged that the "spring and oil seal" at the end of the "left travel control valve" was damaged. After dismantling the "left travel control valve", it was found that the oil seal and spring were obviously damaged.
3.分配阀有内漏:分配阀内泄漏主要原因有:总安全阀的主阀芯被卡死,阀杆与阀体的配合间隙太大,调压弹簧损坏,阀内密封件损坏或阀体有砂眼等。拆检总安全阀的锥阀是否被卡住;检查阀杆和阀体的配合间隙,正常的配合间隙应在0.005~0.025mm之间,修理极限为0.04mm;检查主阀芯于主阀套配合间隙,正常配合标准间隙为0.010~0.018mm,修理极限为0.03mm。检查压力弹簧及阀内密封件是否有损坏。
3. The distribution valve has internal leakage: the main reasons for the internal leakage of the distribution valve are: the main valve core of the general safety valve is stuck, the fit clearance between the valve stem and the valve body is too large, the pressure regulating spring is damaged, the seal in the valve is damaged or the valve body has sand holes, etc. Dismantle and check whether the poppet valve of the main safety valve is stuck; Check the fit clearance between valve stem and valve body. The normal fit clearance should be between 0.005 mm and 0.025mm, and the repair limit is 0.04mm; Check the fit clearance between the main valve core and the main valve sleeve. The normal fit standard clearance is 0.010 ~ 0.018mm, and the repair limit is 0.03mm. Check whether the pressure spring and the seal in the valve are damaged.
4.工作泵内漏:泵内漏表现为:工作时噪声大、发动机转速越高,则噪声越大;在滤油器中可见到大量铜屑。应拆检泵,如有损坏,应修复或更换,更换新弹簧及油封后,该故障排除。
4. Internal leakage of working pump: the performance of internal leakage of working pump is: the higher the noise is, the higher the engine speed is; A lot of copper chips can be seen in the oil filter. The pump should be disassembled and inspected. If it is damaged, it should be repaired or replaced. After the spring and oil seal are replaced, the fault can be eliminated.


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